Chapter 7 goes in depth on communication and dissects it for its elements and objectives. The chapter first states the requirements in order to be an effective communicator. Those requirements are the knowledge of the following: 1. What constitutes communication and how people receive messages. 2. How people process information and change their perceptions, and 3. What kinds of media and communication tools are the most appropriate for a particular message.
The chapter then goes on to describe Media as a tool for public relations affiliates. In this description, it pegs five possible objectives for communication: message exposure, accurate dissemination of the message, acceptance of the message, attitude change, and change in overt behavior.
The chapter then pairs off five elements of communication, pegging a sort of cycle of communication. These elements are that communication has a sender, a message, a channel, a receiver and feedback. Focusing on the receiver, the chapter then explains the difference between passive audiences and active audience. The difference between the two is that passive audiences are audiences that receive messages better with slogans or photos. Active audiences are those who have former interest in what the message is.
The chapter then defines some different ways of receiving the messages. It points out that the more people you have receiving a message the harder it is to communicate that message. Communicators may also need to tailor their messages to certain audience depending on the recipient. To understand the message, communicators should avoid jargon and use clear language. For an audience to believe a message they must act on a certain level of involvement. Extensive repetition is necessary to remember the message. Lastly, acting on the message depends on awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption.
Chapter 8 focuses on the evaluation stage in the process of the program plan in Public Relations. In its definition, evaluation is “the measurement of results against objectives.” In order to proceed with an evaluation, objectives must first exist.
The book then lists and describes six ways to evaluate objectives. The first is measurement of production. Measurement of production is the evaluation of an employees output. The second evaluation is measurement of message exposure. This is essentially a measurement of how the message is created and what types of factors are used in the message. For example, this would be calculating how many key messages are in the original message, or how much coverage the message had. The second form of evaluation is measurement of audience awareness. This is the evaluation of how well received the audience is with the message. The fourth measurement of evaluation is audience attitudes. This is the evaluation of an audience’s opinion on a message. The fifth measurement form is measurement of audience action. This is a measurement of how the audience acted after the message was received. The sixth form of evaluation is measurement of media exposure. This form varies in its nature. These evaluations could be assessed via hits on the internet, media impressions, systematic tracking, or other forms of media tracking.